Can Pets Have Thyroid Issues as Well?

Whether you are a canine lover or a feline fan, you need to know that your pet is at risk of developing thyroid disorders – just like you. If your pet is looking or has been acting weird lately, then make sure to read on to learn more about the different thyroid issues that can affect your beloved pet.

Thyroid Disease in Dogs

Just like humans, dogs possess a thyroid gland – which is located along the neck. It is under the control of the master gland otherwise known as the pituitary gland.

Similarly, a dog’s thyroid gland produces thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3), which regulates the body’s use of energy, as well as its response to other hormones. and other essential hormones.The thyroid gland releases calcitonin as well – a hormone essential for calcium control in the dog’s body.

If the aforementioned hormones are produced in either little or excessive amounts, the dog can suffer from a variety of metabolic problems. Examples include:


Similar to the human condition, hypothyroidism in dogs is marked by a slowed metabolism. It occurs due to the insufficient amount of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland.

Primary hypothyroidism in dogs, as stated in the case study of McKeown, is mostly caused by the destruction of the thyroid gland, as in the cases of idiopathic atrophy, lymphocytic thyroiditis, or neoplastic destruction. Secondary hypothyroidism, on the other hand, occurs due to the reduced secretion of Thyroid-Stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland.

The prevalence of hypothyroidism is much higher in the following:

  • Middle-aged dogs of 4 to 10 years
  • Medium to large-sized canines such as the Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Schnauzer, Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, Airedale Terrier, Golden Retriever, and Irish Setter
  • Neutered males and spayed female dogs 

The common symptoms of hypothyroidism are the following:

  • Dull and thin coat, flaky skin
  • Hair thinning, hair loss, or increased shedding
  • Obesity, weight gain sans appetite changes
  • Lethargy
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Muscle loss
  • Cold intolerance
  • Mental bluntness
  • Reproductive changes 
  • Toenail and ear infections
  • Possible seizures
  • Possible heart and blood vessel disorders

Goiter, or thyroid enlargement, can manifest as a symptom of congenital hypothyroidism, especially in breeds such as that of the Toy Fox Terrier. This swelling, which commonly occurs in mammals, develops due to a low-iodine diet or one that is rich in goitrogens (food that affects thyroid functioning.) Due to the commercial diets of dogs, goiter development can be attributed to genetic problems or the side-effect of the antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfa.

A more serious thyroid condition which is common in the Golden Retriever, Beagle, Doberman Pinscher, and Akita is auto-immune thyroiditis. In this condition, the immune system destroys the thyroid gland, resulting in the primary symptom of Hypothyroidism . While it is a disease by itself, auto-immune thyroiditis can be a symptom of a graver malady, such as that of panendocrinopathy or systemic lupus erythematosus. 


Hyperthyroidism symptoms in dogs can be quite similar to other conditions, which makes diagnosing a challenge for veterinary professionals. Since it is one of the most over-identified illnesses in dogs, veterinarians will base their findings not only on medical history and clinical symptoms, but on laboratory results as well.

Expect your vet to order for a T4 concentration blood test, which is done to gauge your dog’s thyroid levels. Other pertinent blood exams, such as that of T3 and TSH, might be requested by the vet as well. 


A sub-normal level of T4, accompanied by the classical signs mentioned above, are the minimum requirements start hormone treatment with Levothyroxine or L-thyroxine. This synthetic drug is meant to make up for your dog’s low hormone levels.

The dosage will depend on your pet’s weight and thyroid levels, but it is usually taken daily for the remainder of your dog’s life. Results usually manifest in 1-2 months, with the vet making dosage adjustments as needed by the canine. Should the treatment fail, a possible underlying medical condition will be taken into consideration and a new form of treatment might be warranted. 


Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland secretes excessive amounts of hormones. As a result, your dog’s metabolism is set to overdrive. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Increased appetite and thirst
  • Vomiting and/or diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Increased excitability
  • Excessive urination, increased amount of stool
  • Thyroid gland enlargement
  • Breathing difficulties (dyspnea)
  • Heart problems such as murmurs, fast heart rate, enlarged heart (cardiomegaly), and congestive heart failure

The malignant condition called thyroid carcinoma is the primary reason why some dogs develop hyperthyroidism. This neoplastic growth is common in older dogs and in both sexes, however Golden Retrievers, Beagles, and Boxers seem to be at higher risk of developing the said condition.

Thyroid cancer proliferation can be quite rapid, with the study of Bezzola stating that it can easily invade nearby tissues, such as the esophagus, trachea, jugular vein, and larynx. As such, prognosis is dependent on the tumor size, cancer stage, and metastatic activity.


Apart from physical examination and a comprehensive medical history, lab exams such as complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry, and urinalysis will be obtained by the physician. A working consideration for thyroid carcinoma might warrant fine needle aspiration biopsy as well.


Several options are available for dogs with hyperthyroidism due to cancer. The treatment of choice is the surgical removal of the tumor, which is known to prolong life expectancy. Another option is which is done in conjunction with surgery is radioactive iodine therapy, which works by controlling thyroid function and shrinking tumor size.

External beam radiation, on the other hand, is recommended for dogs with cancer that has metastasized to nearby structures. The treatment is delivered through a device such as a linear accelerator or a cobalt therapy machine.

Chemotherapy with the use of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin can be done as well. According to the study of Mayer and MacDonald, this treatment is best for dogs with large inoperable tumors, or those with metastatic thyroid cancer.

Thyroid Disease in Cats

Similar to canines, felines have a thyroid gland which produces the hormones T3 and T4. Both are essential for the metabolic functions within a cat’s body.


As the most common gland condition in cats, hyperthyroidism is characterized by an increased amount of the hormone T4 in circulation. It can occur in any gender or breed, although it is more common in non-purebreds and older felines, usually manifesting at age 12 to 13.

Feline hyperthyroidism is usually caused by a thyroid adenoma, a benign mass that affects both thyroid glands. However, a study by Kohler et al contends that consumption of moist food and the use of aluminum tins can play pivotal roles in the development of the disease.

Hyperthyroidism symptoms can include:

  • Weight loss despite a hearty appetite
  • Panting
  • Hyperactivity
  • Messy appearance
  • Increased thirst
  • Vomiting
  • Excessive urination
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased shedding


Diagnosing hyperthyroidism in cats can be a bit tricky. After all, the symptoms mentioned above can also be seen in cats with inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney failure, diabetes, and intestinal cancer. To rule out these diseases, your vet will ask for a CBC, blood chemistry test, and urinalysis. Hyperthyroid cats usually demonstrate normal CBC and urinalysis results, although an elevation of liver enzymes will show up in the blood chemistry panel.

The best way to make a definitive diagnosis is with a T4 test, so as to check the levels of thyroid hormone in your cat’s bloodstream. While an elevation is expected in afflicted felines, 2 to 10% of cats will showcase normal T4 results – if they only have a mild case of hyperthyroidism.

Unfortunately, other diseases, which are common in older cats, can lead to normal T4 levels – another factor that can lead to a probable misdiagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  • Treatment

Despite the complicated nature of diagnosing hyperthyroidism, treatment options abound once the disease has been confirmed. Examples include:

  • Anti-thyroid Medications. The gold standard when it comes to medication therapy is the use of Methimazole, also known as Tapazole. Positive results show after a mere 2 to 3 weeks. Although it is very effective, it comes with a variety of side effects such as appetite loss, lethargy, head and face itch, yellowing (jaundice), vomiting, and blood disorders. This lifetime treatment includes periodic CBC and T4 examinations to check the hormone levels in the bloodstream.
  • Surgery. For hyperthyroidism caused by thyroid adenoma, a surgical intervention is usually required. Removal can be done easily, although anesthesia can pose a risk on older cats with pre-existing diseases. Compared to a lifetime of Methimazole treatment, it is deemed more economical in the long run.
  • Radiotherapy. Another option for hyperthyroid cats with thyroid adenoma is treatment with radioactive iodine. Given intravenously, it travels to the thyroid gland where it destroys the afflicted tissues. While costly, one dose of radioactive iodine is enough to curb hyperthyroidism. The only downside is the prolonged hospitalization associated with radiotherapy. The confinement period is usually from 10 to 14 days. This is to ensure the safe levels of radioactivity in the cat’s urine or feces.


Hypothyroidism, also known as thyroid hormone deficiency, rarely occurs in cats. When it does, it happens more in kittens rather than adult cats. Hypothyroidism in cats is usually due to congenital disease, iodine deficiency, thyroid hormone overdose, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy. As expected, its symptoms are the reverse of hyperthyroidism, and they include:

  • Decreased activity and weakness
  • Mental dullness
  • Lethargy
  • Low body temperature
  • Constipation
  • Weight gain
  • Unkempt look
  • Hair matting and hair loss
  • Delayed teething


An accurate medical history and physical examination are just some of the vital factors that can lead to an accurate diagnosis of hypothyroidism. It is highly important to determine which causes the condition, and such can be established with the help of a CBC, chemistry exam, and urinalysis. T3 and T4 testing will be ordered by a vet, as well as a radiographic exam to check the abnormalities that could lead to thyroid dysfunction. The expected results in hypothyroid cats are low T4 levels and elevated TSH levels.


Hypothyroidism is short-lived in cats, which is why treatment is barely recommended by vets. However, if it is deemed necessary, hormone therapy is appropriated for the duration of the cat’s lifetime. Adjustments are done every so often, depending on the feline’s recovery.

In Conclusion

To answer the titular question above, the answer is yes – pets can have thyroid issues as well. Hypothyroidism is more common in dogs, while hyperthyroidism is more prevalent in cats. Age and breed can help dictate a pet’s predisposition to thyroid disease.

Diagnosing thyroid disorders is a challenge for veterinary professionals, and as an owner, an accurate description of your pet’s medical history can help lead to an accurate, definitive diagnosis.

Although such is the case, do know that thyroid disorders are treatable – and underlying malignancies can be addressed with early diagnosis and cure. With that being said, as an owner you have a great responsibility to have your pet checked should any of the symptoms above arise.

Relationship Between Hypothyroidism and Joint Pain

Hypothyroidism and joint pain may go hand in hand. It means that if you are suffering from joint pain because of your rheumatoid arthritis, then there is a chance that you can also be suffering from hypothyroidism.

Experiencing joint pain is excruciating. The deformity in your hands and feet looks unappealing. The everyday activities that should be easy for other people, like brushing your teeth, exercising, driving, cooking, and the like feel like challenges for you.

You might be wondering how hypothyroidism and joint pain can be related. After all, the joints are located in the different parts of your body, right? So how does thyroid affect your joints and cause you excruciating pain?

To understand the connection, you should know the purpose of the thyroid glands first.

Function of the Thyroid Glands

The thyroid glands are at the front side of the neck. They are two lobes lying along the trachea. The isthmus, the thyroid’s band of tissue, is the one that binds these two lobes together.

The main function of these glands is to convert iodine (that comes from the food we eat) to thyroid hormones. The thyroid cells absorb iodine and mix it with tyrosine, a kind of amino acid. This combination would create the thyroid hormones called triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

These thyroid hormones travel along the bloodstream to reach the different parts of the body and to take charge of your body’s metabolism.

Now that you know that your thyroid hormones can reach the different parts of your body, now you should know what hypothyroidism is.

What is Hypothyroidism?

The prefix hypo means below. The suffix –ism, when used as a medical term, refers to a condition. Combining them to form the word hypothyroidism implies that it is a medical condition that pertains to the underproduction of hormones from the thyroid gland, which may cause slow metabolism.

Research has shown that it may cause serious complications like a heart disease if left untreated. 

Causes of Hypothyroidism

There are three factors that can cause hypothyroidism.

First, it may be due to the inflammation of the thyroid gland that may have started in the past or continuing at present. This inflammation can cause death to a large number of thyroid cells which are crucial for the production of the thyroid hormones.

Second, it may also be due to autoimmune thyroiditis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is an autoimmune disease. It is the common cause of hypothyroidism in America.

Autoimmune disease refers to a certain condition in which the body’s immune system is attacking the body itself. It senses a foreign invader that is not there.

Third, certain treatments that demand the removal of the thyroid gland or kill lots of thyroid cell may cause hypothyroidism. These treatments include the surgery to remove the thyroid cancer or the application of the radioactive iodine therapy to get rid of benign tumors.

Lastly, it may due to uncommon problems or disorders. One example is if the problem lies at the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is the one that is taking charge of the regulation of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Symptoms may vary from one person to another. The intensity of each symptom depends on how severe the thyroid deficiency is and how long the body has been exposed to this deficiency.

You may suffer from one or more of these symptoms and may not experience the others. In some cases, people do not feel any symptom at all. 

  • Depression
  • Dry Skin
  • Irritability
  • Memory Loss
  • Hair Loss
  • Irregular Menstruation
  • Weakness
  • Constipation Low Libido
  • Difficulty to Adapt in Cold Temperatures
  • Dry Hair
  • Difficulty in Losing Weight

These symptoms are less common:

  • Muscle Cramps or Aches
  • Fatigue
  • Weight Gain
  • Joint Pain
  • Swelling of the Limbs

Direct Connection of Joint Pain and Hypothyroidism

You might be wondering how hypothyroidism and joint pain can go hand in hand. This symptom due to the underactive thyroid gland, which may also include the muscle pain, is called hypothyroid myopathy.

Sometimes this joint pain is due to rheumatoid arthritis. Studies show that if hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis are present in one person at the same time, most commonly, this person is suffering from an autoimmune condition (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, grave’s disease, and the like).  In cases like these, people can feel the pain mostly in their limbs. 

Honestly, there is no clear link between hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis. However, according to the National institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, people with rheumatoid arthritis are more prone to Hashimoto’s disease. As you may recall, Hashimoto’s disease is a common cause of hypothyroidism in America.

Therefore, people with rheumatoid arthritis are the ones who are prone to thyroid problems. Those who are suffering from hypothyroidism may not experience rheumatoid arthritis, but those who are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis may have already been suffering from it or at risk to it.

For this reason, you should take hypothyroidism and joint pain seriously. Ask for advise from your doctor and get your condition treated immediately.

Biotin and Thyroid Hair Loss

A butterfly-shaped gland, the thyroid is located just above the collarbone. It constitutes one of the endocrine glands which generates hormones responsible for controlling metabolism. Thyroid disorders can either rev up or slow down one’s metabolism since they disrupt production of hormones in the thyroid.

There is a wide range of symptoms that can be experienced when thyroid hormone levels are either too high or too low and one common symptom is hair loss.

There are several thyroid disorders that include;

  • Goiter: this is when the thyroid gland enlarges.
  • Thyroid nodules: presence of lumps in the thyroid gland
  • Hyperthyroidism: when the thyroid gland generates more hormones that those required by the body
  • Hypothyroidism: when the thyroid gland does not generate enough thyroid hormones
  • Thyroiditis: swelling of the glands

In order to diagnose thyroid disease, a medical practitioner will first look at your medical history and then take a physical exam that includes thyroid tests. In some cases, a biopsy is used. Treatment of thyroid disorders mainly depends on the particular disorder and may either be through thyroid surgery, radioiodine therapy or medication.

Hair Loss due to Thyroid Disorders

Often, abnormal hormones are blamed for the loss of scalp hair but in reality they are the least cause for hair loss. There are different causes of hair loss and sometimes, its natural as one grows older to lose hair.

Prolonged and severe hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism can lead to hair loss on the entire scalp and not only discrete areas. Successful treatment of the disorder leads to recovery of hair although it may be incomplete. Hair recovery takes several months. Short-lived thyroid problems and mild hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism doesn’t lead to much hair loss.

There are thyroid disorders that come abruptly and are conspicuous and therefore can be diagnosed early while other conditions can be present for months or years before they are diagnosed. One experiences hair loss several months after they get thyroid disease since human beings have a long hair cycle. In some cases hair loss may follow treatment of the thyroid disorder and subsequent medication and one can erroneously blame the medication and withdraw treatment and this in turn will worsen hair loss.


Biotin plays a vital role in preventing hair loss. A vitamin, it encourages hair growth. Deficiency of biotin leads to breakage of hair that results to hair loss.

Biotin and hair growth are directly related and therefore it is important that one incorporates biotin in their regular diet. Examples of foods that contain biotin include liver, egg yolk, brewer’s yeast, soybeans, oats, green peas, sunflower seeds, brown rice, bulgur, walnuts, cauliflower, avocado, legumes, mushrooms and fish.

However, biotin supplements are also recommended since it would take consumption of thousands of calories daily to reach the recommended level. Adding five to eight grams to your food twice everyday can go a long way in preventing hair loss.

Biotin is also referred to as Vitamin B7. Part of the Vitamin B complex, it is water-soluble.  It is also worth noting that individuals with blood type A can’t absorb B vitamins. Persons with acid reflux and heartburn tend to absorb biotin slowly and as a result, hair loss may occur despite ingesting biotin.

It is common to find biotin in skin and hair beauty products. However, biotin is more beneficial when ingested than when applied to the skin.

There are several risk factors that can lead to biotin deficiency in the body and they include: excessive consumption of alcohol, pregnancy, smoking, prolonged use of antibiotic, consumption of copious amount of raw white eggs and serious digestive disorders like celiac disease and Crohn’s disease. Symptoms of biotin deficiency in the body can include hair loss, dry skin, muscle aches, digestive issues, cramps and mood changes.

Advantages of Biotin

  • It is affordable
  • Strengthens hair, nails and the skin
  • Improves regulation of blood sugar
  • Assists in weight loss
  • Assists in processing of energy and transporting carbon dioxide out of the cells

Disadvantages of Biotin

  • It can cause acne and skin breakouts
  • May lead to allergic reactions when it interacts with some drugs
  • Increases the risk of miscarrying in pregnant women
  • High dosage may lead to stomach cramps and diarrhoea
  • On ingestion, it may cause nausea